Printed from the Mr. Lincoln and New York website,

New York City, February 19-20, 1861

The New York Herald editorialized before President-elect Lincoln's arrival in New York City: "What will Mr. Lincoln do when he arrives? What will he say to the citizens of this great metropolis? Will he kiss our girls, and give a twirl to the whiskers which he has begun to cultivate? Will he tell our merchants, groaning under the pressure of the greatest political convulsion ever experienced in America that 'nobody is hurt' or that 'marching troops into South Carolina' and bombarding its fortresses is 'no invasion'?"1 A New York Herald journalist , Henry Villard, who had followed Mr. Lincoln's activities for the previous three months, filed his last dispatch about the train ride from Albany to New York City:
In the special car were Mr. And Mrs. Lincoln and their suite....Martin J. Townsend, Esq., a Chicago delegate, and a great friend of Thurlow Weed, was also on board; but Mr. Lincoln was so unwell and fatigued that he seemed to take very little interest in the political conversation. Mrs. Lincoln chit-chatted with her friends, and seemed all life and enjoyment....It was plain to see that the Lincolns are common sense, homelike folks unused to the glitter and flutter of society. Towering above all, with his face and forehead furrowed by a thousand wrinkles, his hair unkempt, his new whiskers looking as if not yet naturalized, his clothes illy arranged, Mr. Lincoln sat toward the rear of the saloon car.

Putting prejudices a-one-side, no one can see Mr. Lincoln without recognizing in him a man of immense power and force of character and natural talent. He seems so sincere, so conscientious, so earnest, so simple-hearted, that one cannot help liking him and esteeming any disparagement of his abilities or desire to do right as a personal insult. What will he do? All asking. Mr. Lincoln says that he has not yet determined; he cannot determine until he shall get all possible light upon the subject; but he is sure that he will say nothing 'inconsistent with the Constitution' — his favorite phrase....

With the rather argumentative and logical powers; with the intimate knowledge of politics and politicians and with the uncommon homespun common sense which his friends claim for him, Lincoln seems a man to act and decide for himself....He seems tremendously rough and tremendously honest and earnest. Lincoln talks excellently and with ease upon any topic, and tells a story with consummate tact. He seldom tells stories in his public speeches, however. When first in Congress he adopted the hifalutin style, but has since changed this for that Spartan simplicity of manner and diction which all great orators have preferred.

Of late also he tells fewer stories than usual in conversation. As a specimen of what his stories are — and for them he has a great popular reputation — he said one day: 'I once knew a good sound churchman, whom we'll call Brown, who was on a committee to erect a bridge over a very dangerous and rapid river. Architect after architect failed, and at last Brown said he had a friend named Jones who had built several bridges and could build this. 'Let's have him in,' said the committee. In came Jones. 'Can you build this bridge, sir?' 'Yes,' replied Jones, 'I could build a bridge to the infernal regions if necessary.' The sober committee was horrified; when Jones retired Brown thought it but fair to defend his friend. 'I know Jones so well,' said he, 'and he is so good an architect, that, if he states soberly and positively that he can build a bridge to Hades — why, I believe it. But I have my doubts about the abutment on the infernal side.'" You should see Lincoln's facial contortions at this point. 'So," Lincoln added, "when politicians said they could harmonize the Northern and Southern wings of the Democracy, why, I believed them, but I had my doubts about the abutment on the Southern side."

The story which Lincoln began to tell in Indiana the other day, but which was broken off by the departure of the train, is equally apropos: 'There was a man who was to be nominated at a political convention, and hired a horse of a livery-keeper to journey there. The horse was confoundedly slow, however," — (here the train moved off amid great laughter, but Lincoln concluded the story at the next station) — that the man arrived too late, and found his opponent nominated and the convention adjourned. When he arrived home he said to the stable-man, 'This is a fine animal of yours — a fine animal.' 'Do you think so?' 'Certainly, but never sell him to an undertaker.' 'Undertaker? Why not?' Because if the horse were hitched to a hearse resurrection day would come before he reached the cemetery.'" "So," concluded the President, "if my journey goes on at this slow rate it will be resurrection day before I reach the capital."

Such are the stories with which Lincoln delights his friends when in the mood, but of late the mood comes seldom.2

The pre-presidential train pulled into the Hudson River Railroad Company train station at tenth Avenue and 30th Street at 3 P.M, precisely on time. Before the Lincolns stepped off the train, Mrs. Lincoln allegedly said: "Abraham, I must fix you up a bit for these city folks." The size of the crowd was no doubt augmented by the commercial holiday that been declared in Mr. Lincoln's honor. Future presidential aide John G. Nicolay recalled that " the great city of New York which was reached on Tuesday afternoon the 19th, while the crowds were the largest encountered during the whole journey, the police arrangements were among the most perfect, and that neither accident nor inconvenience attended Mr. Lincoln's movement through the numerous 'functions' which committees had prearranged. Broadway had been kept clear, so that the double line of carriages which made up the procession moved from the depot where the train arrived down the whole length of that magnificent street to the Astor House in perfect order and with plenty of room, giving to the people who crowded the side streets, doors, balconies, windows, and lined even the roofs of buildings with a continuous fringe of humanity, a clear view of the President-elect."3

The New York Illustrated News reported:
A peculiarity of the reception was the absence of all military display and the utter disregard of formal preparation. The City Authorities were not represented here, the Committee being on the train with Mr. Lincoln. The Mayor was not present, and the immense crowd were gathered together simply by their desire to see and to do honor to a single man — their choice, their hope, their reliance. There was no looking for a grand display, there was no promise, and no need of extraneous aids to attract the throng — no drums, no uniforms, no speeches from loud-mouthed cannon or soft-mouthed politicians, were promised, expected or desired.....

A hurried rush of eager spectators; a hurried forming of two hurried lines by the hurrying policemen; a hurried dash into the enclosure of a gasping, and gayly decorated locomotive engine; a hurried rising from sofa seats, and a hurrying step to the platform by happy passengers; a hurried grasping of a few hurrying hands; another hurried rush of the eager crowd to see the man of the hour; a hurried and exceedingly vigorous argument with the said hurrying crowd, by the police officers; a hurried rescue of Mr. Lincoln from the hand-shaking inflictions of admiring friends; a dozen hurried steps through the new depot building, a hurried passing into hundreds of carriages by the countless lucky ones, a hearty cheer from the now satisfied crowd, a five minute delay for an inscrutable something about the baggage, another cheer, a waving of innumerable white handkerchiefs from the hundreds of windows, a graceful raising of the hat by Mr. Lincoln in response thereto, a hurried order by a hurried Marshal, a hurried cracking of whips by many horses, and so, amid more cheers, more shouts of welcome, and more waving of more handkerchiefs, the procession began its march.4

Another famous New Yorker was caught up in the events of that day. "I shall not easily forget the first time I ever saw Abraham Lincoln. It must have been about the 18th or 19th of February, 1861," wrote writer Walt Whitman. "It was a rather pleasant afternoon in New York City, as he arrived there from the West, to remain a few hours and then pass on to Washington to prepare for his inauguration. I saw him in Broadway, near the site of the present post office. He came down, I think from Canal Street, to stop at the Astor House."
The broad spaces, sidewalks, and street in that neighborhood and for some distance were crowded with solid masses of people — many thousands. The omnibuses and other vehicles had all been turned off, leaving an unusual hush in that busy part of the city. Presently two or three shabby hack barouches made their way with difficulty through the crowd and drew up at the Astor House entrance.

A tall figure stepped out of the center of these barouches, paused leisurely on the sidewalk, looked up at the granite walls and looming architecture of the grand old hotel — then, after a relieving stretch of arms and legs, turned around for over a minute to slowly and good-humoredly scan the appearance of the vast and silent crowds.

There were no speeches, no compliments, no welcome — as far as I could hear, not a word said. Still, much anxiety was concealed in that quiet. Cautious persons had feared some marked insult or indignity to the president-elect — for he possessed no personal popularity at all in New York City and very little political. But it was evidently tacitly agreed that if the few political supporters of Mr. Lincoln present would entirely abstain from any demonstration on their side, the immense majority — who were anything but supporters — would abstain on their side also. The result was a sulky, unbroken silence, such as certainly never before characterized a New York crowd.

From the top of an omnibus (driven up on side, close by, and blocked by the curbstone and the crowds) I had, I say, a capital view of it all and especially of Mr. Lincoln: his looks and gait; his perfect composure and coolness; his unusual and uncouth height; his dress of complete black, stovepipe hat pushed back on his head; dark-brown complexion; seamed and wrinkled yet canny-looking face; black, bush head of hair; disproportionately long neck; and his hands held behind, as he stood observing the people.

He looked with curiosity upon that immense sea of faces, and the sea of faces returned the look with similar curiosity. In both there was a dash of comedy, almost farce, such as Shakespeare puts in his blackest tragedies. The crowd that hemmed around consisted, I should think, of thirty to forty thousand men, not a single one his personal friend, while, I have no doubt (so frenzied were the ferments of the time) many an assassin's knife and pistol lurked in hip- or breast-pocket there — ready, soon as break and riot came.

But no break or riot came. The tall figure gave another relieving stretch or two of arms and legs; then, with moderate pace, and accompanied by a few unknown-looking persons, ascended the portico steps of the Astor House, disappeared through its broad entrance — and the dumb-show ended.5

New York attorney George Templeton Strong wrote in his diary: "I walked uptown at 3:30. Broadway crowded, though not quite so densely as on the Prince of Wales avatar last October. The trottoir well filled by pedestrians (vehicles turned off into side streets, and sidewalks by patient and stationary sight-seers. Above Canal Street they were nearly impassable. At St. Thomas's Church I met the illustrious cortege moving down to the Astor House with its escort of mounted policemen and a torrent of rag-tag and bobtail rushing and hooraying behind. The great rail-splitter's face was visible to me for an instant, and seemed a keen, clear, honest face, not so ugly as his portraits..."6

Mr. Lincoln's visit was not all ceremony and entertainment. "In this metropolis he was confronted with Republican opponents of Seward, who had set afoot plans to persuade him to exclude the Senator from his Cabinet. It was a repetition of situations in other states — Republican factions combatting each other, jockeying for party supremacy — all determined that this man, or that man, must be appointed to or excluded from, the President-elect's as yet uncompleted Cabinet," wrote Albert Shaw.7

Shaw, who chronicled Mr. Lincoln's rise to the presidency, wrote that President-elect Lincoln "was escorted to the old Astor House at City Hall Park by the Common Council riding in carriages, proceeding down Ninth Avenue to Twenty-third Street, through to Fifth Avenue, and from Fourteenth Street down Broadway to the hotel. The spectacle imitated somewhat the recent pageants in honor of the Prince of Wales and the Japanese delegation. At an ovation given by Republican clubs that evening, Lincoln asked to be allowed to make excuses for avoiding discourse upon the issues of the day. He admitted that he might easily talk upon the matters that were in the public mind..."8 President Lincoln addressed the crowd:
I am rather an old man to avail myself of such an excuse as I am now about to do, yet the truth is so distinct and presses itself so distinctly upon me that I cannot well avoid it, and that is that I did not understand when I was brought into this room that I was brought here to make a speech. It was not intimated to me that I was brought into the room where Daniel Webster and Henry Clay had made speeches, and where one in my position might be expected to do something like those men, or do something unworthy of myself or my audience. I therefore will beg you to make very great allowance for the circumstances under which I have been by surprise brought before you. Now, I have been in the habit of thinking and speaking for some time upon political questions that have for some years past agitated the country, and if I were disposed to do so, and we could take up some one of the issues as the lawyers call them, and I were called upon to make an argument about it to the best of my ability, I could do that without much preparation. But that is not what you desire to be done here to-night. I have been occupying a position, since the Presidential election, of silence, of avoiding public speaking, of avoiding public writing. I have been doing so because I thought, upon full consideration, that was the proper course for me to take. (Great applause.) I am brought before you now and required to make a speech, when you all approve, more than anything else, of the fact that I have been silent--(loud laughter, cries of 'Good--good,' and applause)--and now it seems to me from the response you give to that remark it ought to justify me in closing just here. (Great laughter.) I have not kept silent since the Presidential election from any party wantonness, or from any indifference to the anxiety that pervades the minds of men about the aspect of the political affairs of this country. I have kept silent for the reason that I supposed it was peculiarly proper that I should do so until the time came when, according to the customs of the country, I should speak officially. (Voice, partially interrogative, partially sarcastic, 'Custom of the country?") I heard some gentleman say, 'According to the custom of the country;' I alluded to the custom of the President elect at the time of taking his oath of office. That is what I meant by the custom of the country. I do suppose that while the political drama being enacted in this country at this time is rapidly shifting in its scenes, forbidding an anticipation with any degree of certainty to-day what we shall see to-morrow, that I was peculiarly fitting that I should see it all up to the last minute before I should take ground, that I might be disposed by the shifting of the scenes afterwards again to shift. (Applause.) I said several times upon this journey, and I shall now repeat it to you, that when the time does come I shall then take the ground that I think is right — (Interruption by cries of 'Good,' 'good,' and applause) — the ground I think is right for the North, for the South, for the East, for the West, for the whole country — (cries of 'Good,' 'Hurrah for Lincoln,' and great applause). And in doing so I hope to feel no necessity pressing upon me to say anything in conflict with the constitution, in conflict with the continued union of these States — (Applause) — in conflict with the perpetuation of the liberties of these people — (cheers) — or anything in conflict with anything whatever that I have ever given you reason to expect from me. (Loud cheers.) And now, my friends, have I said enough (Cries of 'No, no,' 'Go on,' &c.) Now, my friends, there appears to be a difference of opinion between you and me, and I feel called upon to insist upon deciding the question myself (enthusiastic cheers.) 9

The following morning, President Lincoln and the city's business elite attended a breakfast at the home of the daughter of businessman Moses Grinnell. According to Leo Hershkowitz in Tweed's New York: Another Look, "At 8 A.M., accompanied by General James Watson Webb, duelist and former editor of the Courier and Enquirer, and Thurlow Weed, Republican king-maker, Lincoln was quietly spirited out the Vesey Street entrance of Astor House and driven to the home of Moses Grinnell's daughter, where he found about a hundred of the most prosperous merchants waiting to greet him."10

It may have been at this breakfast that an incident occurred about which Connecticut farmer Bronson Murray wrote to Lincoln friend Ward H. Lamon: "There is a story that — a purse proud chap was presented to [President-elect Lincoln]. and said 'Mr. L — ahem — I am a director of the bank of commerce Sir.' 'Are you sir & where is that.' 'Why here in New York Sir. We take all the Govt. Loans.' 'Oh well' said L 'then we will become better acquainted.' This is thought a capital thing here & people want to know who the director is. Some of these fellows fancy there is no place in the Union but N. York and their clique or sett [sic]."11

Bronson, who knew Lamon from Illinois, had met the future U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia that morning: "Just before we met, my father & old ald[erman] Purdy (both wheel horses of the Dem[ocratic] party here) were canvassing matters politic. Purdy said he had seen Lincoln & liked the man, said he was much better looking & a finer man than he expected to see; and that he kept aloof from old politicians here & seemed to have a mind of his own. Old Judge Benson too (who was with us) is a democrat and was equally pleased with L. He says L. has an eye that shows power of mind & will & he thinks he will carry us safely."12

"Mayor Fernando Wood, handsome, smooth-shaven, dressed in a double-breasted frock coat and black stock, received Lincoln publicly but his welcome was almost insolent," wrote Jay Monaghan in Diplomat in Carpet Slippers.13 "At New York City, being introduced by one of his bitter opponents, Mayor Wood, he managed to capitalize the fact of party disagreement among those who welcomed him. Always he had a word for the occasion and the locality," wrote historian James G. Randall.14 "In his address of welcome to Mr. Lincoln," according to Albert Shaw, Wood "reminded the President of his grave responsibilities in the following terms: 'Coming office with a dismembered government to reconstruct, and a disconnected and hostile people to reconcile, it will require a high patriotism and an elevated comprehension of the whole country and its varied interests, opinions and prejudices to so conduct public affairs as to bring it back again to its former harmonious, consolidated and prosperous condition."15 While Mrs. Lincoln visited the nearby Barnum's Museum, President-elect Lincoln spoke to the Mayor and the City Council that afternoon:
It is with feelings of deep gratitude that I make my acknowledgement for this reception which has been given me in the great commercial city of New York. I cannot but remember that this is done by a people who do not by a majority agree with me in political sentiments. It is the more grateful [to me] because in this reception I see that, in regard to the great principles of our government, the people are very nearly or quite unanimous.

In reference to the difficulties that confront us at this time, and of which your Honor thought fit to speak so becomingly, and so justly as I suppose. I can only say that I fully concur in the sentiments expressed by the Mayor. In my devotion to the Union I hope I am behind no man in the Union; but as to the wisdom with which to conduct affairs tending to the preservation of the Union, I fear that even too great confidence may have been reposed [placed] in me. I am sure I bring a heart devoted to the work.

There is nothing that can ever bring me willingly to consent to the destruction of this Union, under which not only the commercial city of New York, but the whole country has acquired its greatness, unless it were to be that thing for which the Union itself was made. I understand a ship to be made for the carrying and preservation of the cargo, and so long as the ship can be saved, with the cargo, it should never be abandoned. This Union should likewise never be abandoned unless it fails and the probability of its preservation shall cease to exist without throwing the passengers and cargo overboard. So long, then, as it is possible that the prosperity and the liberties of the people can be preserved in the Union, it shall be my purpose at all times to preserve it. Thanking you for the reception given me, allow me to come to a close."16

Before leaving City Hall, Mr. Lincoln appeared on the balcony and told the crowd below: "Friends: I do not appear for the purpose of making a speech. I design to make no speech. I came merely to see you, and allow you to see me. [Cheers] And I have to say to you, as I have said frequently to audiences on my journey, that, in the sight, I have the best of the bargain. [Tremendous cheers.] Assuming that you are all for the Constitution, the Union [renewed cheering], and the perpetual liberties of this people, I bid you farewell. [Cheers]."17

New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley said he never heard Mr. Lincoln tell a story — except on this visit to New York City. "Almost every one was asking him, with evident apprehension if not perturbation: 'What is to be the issue of this Southern effervescence? Are we really to have civil war?'" wrote Greeley after the Civil War. Mr. Lincoln responded with this story:
"Many years ago, when I was a young lawyer, and Illinois was little settled, except on her southern border, I, with other lawyers, used to ride the circuit; journeying with the judge from county-seat to county-seat in quest of business. Once, after a long spell of pouring rain, which had flooded the whole country, transforming small creeks into rivers, we were often stopped by these swollen streams, which we with difficulty crossed. Still ahead of us was Fox River, larger than all the rest; and we could not help saying to each other, 'If these streams give us so much trouble, how shall we get over Fox River?' Darkness fell before we had reached that stream; and we all stopped at a log tavern, had our horses put out, and resolved to pass the night. Here we were right glad to fall in with the Methodist Presiding Elder of the circuit, who rode it in all weather, knew all its ways, and could tell us all about Fox River. So we all gathered around him, and asked him if he knew about the crossing of Fox River. 'O yes,' he replied, 'I know all about Fox River. I have crossed it often, and understand it well; but I have one fixed rule with regard to Fox River: I never cross it til I reach it.'"18

"Mrs. Lincoln gave a reception of her own on the day after their arrival at which she received with Mrs. James Watson Webb [who was the wife of the editor of the Courier & Enterprise]. There was nothing ostentatious about her manner or attire. Her high-necked gown of steel-colored silk was trimmed with plaited satin ribbon. A diamond brooch held her lace collar in place, and she wore diamond eardrops under a black chenille and gold headdress. She carried a nosegay and a small ivory fan, which she whisked restless as she chatted with her guests," wrote her biographer Ishbel Ross. "More than a hundred of New York's leading social figures paid their respects to Mrs. Lincoln that night, but one who was conspicuously absent was Mrs. August Belmont. The social freeze on interloper from the Middle West became public chatter when Leslie's Weekly ran a revealing item: 'We are requested to state that Mrs. August Belmont did not call upon Mrs. Lincoln during her stay at the Astor House.'"19

That night the President-elect's party was given a dinner — after which he attended a performance of Verdi's opera, "Un ballo in maschera" at the Academy of Music. He shocked some sophisticated New Yorkers by wearing black rather than white gloves to the opera. According to Carl Sandburg: "In a box opposite, a Southern man remarked to the ladies of his party, 'I think we ought to send some flowers over the way to the Undertaker of the Union.' The word spread, and the press commented on the one pair of black gloves in the packed house."20 Mr. Lincoln's aide, John G. Nicolay, wrote:
At about a quarter past eight Mr. Lincoln, accompanied by Judge [David] Davis of Illinois, and Alderman Cornell, entered, wholly unnoticed, the right hand proscenium box, on a line with the second tier. Another party, including two ladies, took seats behind the distinguished visitor. The first act over, the audience, having discovered his arrival, applauded him loudly. Mr. Lincoln bowed his acknowledgement of this courtesy, and resumed his seat amid renewed enthusiasm. After the lapse of half a minute a second round of applause was elicited, accompanied by cheers and the waving of hats and handkerchiefs. The ladies evinced much curiosity and fluttered their fans and mouchoirs with patriotic fervor. Again Mr. Lincoln bowed and sat down. The efforts to obtain a speech failed, as was only proper it should, under the circumstances. The curtain now rose, and the entire company sang the 'Star Spangled Banner', the audience rising en masse. Miss Phillips sang the solo stanzas correctly. At the end of the first stanza a magnificent American flag was suddenly dropped half way down to the floor from between the flies. The presidential party remained standing, as did the entire audience, until the good old tune was finished. The band played 'Hail Columbia' as the curtain fell, after which the opera proceeded. The President and the gentlemen who attended him took their leave quietly at the close of the second act."21

Historian David C. Mearns described the President's departure. "At eight o'clock on the morning of Thursday, February 21, he, his family and party emerged from the private entrance of the Astor House. For a moment he stood on the pavement, shaking hands with his hosts and repeatedly expressing gratification at the courtesies he had received. Then he climbed into his carriage and the procession clattered down to the foot of Cortlandt Street."
"Despite the fact that it was almost an hour earlier than the time announced for his departure, there had been cheering along the way and a little company now stood on the dock to see him off. There was a short wait, while the elegant new ferryboat, the John P. Jackson, gay with streamers and bearing the welcomers from Jersey, was made fast. Then, when the plank had been lowered, the Presidential carriage drove on board, and Allen Dodworth's excellent band began to play. What it played is uncertain. It is generally agreed that it played 'Hail,' but the reporter of the New York World heard 'Hail Columbia,' while the man from Newark's Sentinel of Freedom listened to 'Hail to the Chief.'"

"Mr. Lincoln alighted from his carriage, and the moorings were cast off. Instead of taking the direct course, the pilot headed down the bay toward Bedloe's Island. Mr. Lincoln was escorted to the ladies' cabin where he was subjected to a greeting from A.A. Hardenbergh, president of the Board of Aldermen.....22

Episcopal minister George C. Shepard wrote relatives about his observations of his fellow New York City hotel guest: "We saw the President elect & suite leave at 8 this morning. We saw his arrival day before yesterday. He is a clever man & not so bad looking as they say, while he is no great beauty. He is tall (6f. 4 in.) Has a commanding figure; bows pretty well; is not stiff; has a pleasant face, is amiable & determined. He seems to me the right man for the present times. We saw him on several occasions; near him three or four times, but did not seek any introduction to him. Last night we were at Mrs. Lincoln's reception in the Parlor below ours. She is a plump, amiable, modest, pleasant, round faced, agreeable woman; with no silly airs; & they say is a pious woman. We feel a deep interest in them both, & trust they have gone to deliver our country form the thraldom of imbecility, knavery & slavery. Should the poor imbecile at its held leave us any thing to call a country some ten days hence, when he finishes his feeble & dishonest rule, Mr. Lincoln will set us right, assisted by Him who is King of kings."23

All in all, Rev. Shepard concluded: "We think the reception in this City was very well managed, & nothing too much or too little."24 Lincoln biographer Carl Sandburg concluded: "The New York reception of the President-elect was the most elaborate, pretentious, detailed, expensive — and yet the coldest — of all on the Lincoln journey toward inauguration."25



  1. William E. Barton, The Life of Abraham Lincoln, Volume I, p. 472.
  2. Henry Villard, Lincoln on the Eve of ‘61, p. 95-100 (New York Herald, February 20, 1862).
  3. Michael Burlingame, editor, An Oral History of Abraham Lincoln, John G. Nicolay’s Interviews and Essays, p. 118-119.
  4. Civil War Extra: A Newspaper History of the Civil War from Nat Turner to 1863, Volume I, (New York Illustrated News, February 28, 1861).
  5. Walter Lowenfels, Walt Whitman and the Civil War, p. 269-270.
  6. Allan Nevins, editor, Diary of the Civil War, 1860-1865: George Templeton Strong, p. 101 (February 20, 1860).
  7. Reinhard H. Luthin, The Real Abraham Lincoln, p. 253.
  8. Albert Shaw, Abraham Lincoln: His Path to the Presidency, p. 248.
  9. Roy P. Basler, editor, The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume IV, p. 230-231 (February 19, 1861).
  10. Leo Hershkowitz, Tweed’s New York: Another Look, p. 80.
  11. Harry E. Pratt, Concerning Mr. Lincoln, p. 55 (Letter from Bronson Murray to Ward H. Lamon, February 20, 1861).
  12. Harry E. Pratt, Concerning Mr. Lincoln, p. 55 (Letter from Bronson Murray to Ward H. Lamon, February 20, 1861).
  13. Jay Monaghan, Diplomat in Carpet Slippers, p. 30.
  14. James G. Randall, Lincoln the President, Springfield to Gettysburg, Volume I, p. 283.
  15. Albert Shaw, Abraham Lincoln: The Path to the Presidency, p. 248.
  16. Roy P. Basler, editor, The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume IV, p. 232-233 (February 20, 1861).
  17. Roy P. Basler, editor, The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume IV, p. 233 (February 20, 1861).
  18. Horace Greeley, Recollections of a Busy Life, p. 405.
  19. Ishbel Ross, The President's Wife: Mary Todd Lincoln, p. 95.
  20. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie and the War Years, p. 201.
  21. Michael Burlingame, editor, An Oral History of Abraham Lincoln, John G. Nicolay’s Interviews and Essays, p. 118-119.
  22. David Chambers Mearns, Largely Lincoln, p. 62-63.
  23. Harry E. Pratt, Concerning Mr. Lincoln, p. 56 (Letter from George C. Shepard to Mr. and Mrs. Lucius M. Boltwood, February 21, 1861).
  24. Harry E. Pratt, Concerning Mr. Lincoln, p. 56 (Letter from George C. Shepard to Mr. and Mrs. Lucius M. Boltwood, February 21, 1861).
  25. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie and the War Years, p. 202.


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